Causes of Modern-Day Racism in America
In brief: for a century after the abolition of slavery in 1865, policies still restricted where black families could live. Then, most manufacturing jobs migrated to the suburbs which were overwhelmingly white. As the rate of unemployment and consequently violence and drug abuse rose among black communities, extreme punishments were enacted against drug users.
Consequently, 1 in 4 black men in the United States will be incarcerated during their lifetime, whereas only 1 in 23 white men will.
The net worth of the average white household ($171,000) is ten times greater than that of the average black household ($17,150) (Source)
In Wealth, Poverty, and Politics, Thomas Sowell argues that the modern-day welfare state promotes idleness and state-dependence.